Story Spine: A Powerful 8-Step Storytelling Structure

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Every great story has a backbone, a structure that holds together all the elements that make it engaging, coherent, and memorable. One of the most powerful tools for achieving this is the story spine, a simple yet effective storytelling method that has been utilized by some of the greatest storytellers of our time, including Pixar Animation Studios.

An effective story spine can be the key to unlocking a gripping tale. By providing a clear, easy-to-follow structure, it ensures that your narrative unfolds in a manner that is both engaging and satisfying to your readers.


What is a Story Spine?

A story spine is a simple yet powerful storytelling framework, consisting of a series of connected phrases or “spines” that guide the progression of a narrative. It provides a blueprint for writers to create engaging stories with a clear beginning, middle, and end.

The story spine was originally created in the early 1990s by playwright and improv actor Kenn Adams, as a tool for improvisational theater. It has since become a widely adopted technique in literature, film, and other forms of storytelling.


With roots in improvisational theater, it allows for a unique combination of structure and spontaneity. By offering a clear roadmap for a story’s progression, it enables writers to explore their creativity within a supportive framework.

Over time, this technique has evolved and been adapted for various storytelling mediums, including the world of literature. Among its most famous applications is the Pixar story spine, a formula that has contributed to the success of some of the most beloved animated films in history.

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Elements of the Story Spine

The story spine consists of seven key elements, each serving a specific purpose in the narrative. Here’s a breakdown of each element and how it contributes to the story.

How to Use the Story Spine With Kenn Adams


“Once upon a time…”

This phrase sets the stage for your story, providing the context in which your characters live and interact. It’s your chance to immerse your readers in the world you’ve created.


“And every day…”

This element allows you to establish the status quo of your characters’ lives, revealing their routines, habits, and relationships. It helps readers understand the world your characters inhabit and gives them a baseline for the changes that will follow.


“But one day…”

This crucial moment sets your story in motion. The inciting incident introduces a problem or conflict that disrupts the characters’ daily lives, forcing them to take action.


“Because of that…”

Now it’s time to delve into the consequences and ripple effects of the inciting incident. As your characters face challenges and make choices, their actions set off a chain of cause and effect that propels the story forward. This section helps build tension and keeps readers invested in the characters’ journey.


“Because of that…”

Following the first actions of your characters to counteract the inciting incident, this part sees them facing additional obstacles as they progress through their journey. These challenges help develop your characters and push the story forward.


“Because of that…”

The story continues to escalate as the characters encounter further complications. These events will ultimately lead to the climax of the story.


“Until finally…”

The climax is the emotional high point of your story, where the stakes are at their highest, and the characters confront their most significant obstacles. This turning point is where your characters must make critical decisions, face their fears, or undergo significant growth in order to overcome the conflict.


“And ever since that day…”

This final element brings your story to a close, resolving the conflicts and revealing the consequences of the characters’ actions. It establishes a new status quo, showing how the characters have evolved and how their world has changed as a result of their journey.


Examples of the Story Spine

To better understand this storytelling method, let’s examine how it’s been employed in some classic works of literature:


Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland, by Lewis Carroll

This classic tale, written by Lewis Carroll and published in 1865, has been one of the most popular children’s books in English since the 19th century. First imagined during a picnic, as the author improvised it for the daughters of the dean of Christ Church in Oxford, where he studied, it has been adapted into numerous films and television programs in several languages. (Learn More)


  • “Once upon a time…”: Alice was a curious and imaginative young girl who lived with her sister in the English countryside.
  • “And every day…”: Alice spent her days exploring the woods, daydreaming, and reading books with her sister.
  • “But one day…”: While sitting by a tree, Alice noticed a peculiar White Rabbit wearing a waistcoat and pocket watch, which she followed down a rabbit hole.
  • “Because of that…”: Alice found herself in a strange and fantastical world called Wonderland, where she met peculiar characters like the Cheshire Cat, the Mad Hatter, and the Queen of Hearts.
  • “Because of that…”: As Alice journeyed through Wonderland, she encountered various challenges and riddles, all while trying to find her way back home.
  • “Because of that…”: In her quest to return home, Alice learned valuable lessons about courage, curiosity, and self-discovery.
  • “Until finally…”: Alice confronted the Queen of Hearts and her army of playing cards, awakening from her dream-like adventure and finding herself back in the real world.
  • “And ever since that day…”: Alice’s experience in Wonderland left her with a newfound appreciation for the power of imagination and the beauty of the world around her.


Harry Potter and the Philosopher’s Stone, by J.K. Rowling

The first novel in the series of children’s books that took over the world at the end of the 1990s. Ever since its first publication, the series of the Harry Potter books has become an ingrained part of popular culture, as an epic fantasy tale that follows the adventures of the young wizard Harry Potter. (Learn More)


  • “Once upon a time…”: Harry Potter, an orphaned boy, lived with his cruel aunt and uncle, unaware of his magical heritage.
  • “And every day…”: Harry endured the hardships of life with his relatives, feeling unloved and out of place in the mundane world.
  • “But one day…”: On his eleventh birthday, Harry received a letter from Hogwarts School of Witchcraft and Wizardry, revealing his true identity as a wizard.
  • “Because of that…”: Harry embarked on a journey to Hogwarts, where he befriended Ron and Hermione and discovered the mysterious connection between himself and the dark wizard Lord Voldemort.
  • “Because of that…”: As the trio unraveled the secrets surrounding the Philosopher’s Stone, they encountered various challenges, magical creatures, and obstacles.
  • “Because of that…”: Harry, Ron, and Hermione grew closer as friends, developing their magical skills and learning the value of teamwork and loyalty.
  • “Until finally…”: Harry confronted Voldemort, protecting the Philosopher’s Stone and ultimately ensuring its destruction.
  • “And ever since that day…”: Harry’s life was forever changed, as he embraced his destiny as a wizard and continued his adventures at Hogwarts with his newfound friends.


The Lion, the Witch, and the Wardrobe, by C.S. Lewis

This beloved fantasy novel, written by C.S. Lewis in 1950, is the first book in the series The Chronicles of Narnia, and the best known of its seven volumes. Although not a great success in the first years after being published, it has now been included in Times’ “All-time 100 novels”, and it has been adapted into a series of movies. (Learn More)


  • “Once upon a time…”: The siblings Peter, Susan, Edmund and Lucy Pevensie were sent to live with Professor Kirke, in order to escape from the bombings of London during World War II.
  • “And every day…”: The four siblings explored the house and played, trying to get used to their new life.
  • “But one day…”: Lucy, the youngest of the siblings, found an enormous wardrobe that called her attention and entered it, arriving at a fantastic, snowy wood.
  • “Because of that…”: She found herself in the world of Narnia, which was under the government of the White Witch, who enchanted Narnia so it was always winter.
  • “Because of that…”: When Lucy came back home, after some skepticism on their part, she convinced her siblings to go with her to Narnia, where they met the lion Aslan, the rightful ruler of Narnia.
  • “Because of that…”: The White Witch grew worried that the four siblings were the protagonists of a prophecy predicting the end of her ruling, and she plotted against them and Aslan.
  • “Until finally…”: In a climactic battle against the White Witch and her dark forces, the siblings, guided by Aslan’s wisdom and strength, emerged victorious, ending the Witch’s reign and ushering in a new era of peace for Narnia.
  • “And ever since that day…”: The siblings were crowned Kings and Queens of Narnia, ruling the land with wisdom and compassion, forever changed by their magical adventure and the lessons they had learned about courage, love, and sacrifice. Eventually, they returned to their own world, forever cherishing their time in Narnia and the friendships they had made.


Benefits of Using the Story Spine Structure

A story spine is a powerful tool that can help writers create unforgettable stories that resonate deeply with their audience. In this section, we’ll explore the myriad benefits of embracing this type of structure and how it can elevate your storytelling to new heights.


Simplifying the Storytelling Process

The story spine provides a clear and straightforward framework for organizing and structuring your narrative. It acts as a guiding light in the often overwhelming world of storytelling, allowing writers to focus on the essential elements of their tale. By offering a solid foundation, it empowers writers to breathe life into their stories and create immersive, unforgettable experiences for their readers.


Ensuring a Coherent & Engaging Narrative

A well-crafted story is like a symphony, with each element harmoniously building upon the others to create a captivating and emotionally resonant experience. The story spine helps writers weave together the various threads of their narrative, ensuring a cohesive and engaging tale that maintains the reader’s interest and investment from beginning to end. With the story spine as your guide, your narrative will flow seamlessly, evoking powerful emotions and leaving a lasting impression on your audience.


Facilitating Character Development

Memorable stories are driven by unforgettable characters who grow and evolve throughout their journeys. The story spine encourages writers to delve deep into their characters’ hearts and minds, exploring their motivations, struggles, and growth. By providing a roadmap for your characters’ emotional journeys, it ensures that your protagonists are well-rounded, relatable, and compelling, forging a powerful connection between your readers and the characters they grow to love.


Encouraging Creativity Within Structure

While the story spine offers a reliable structure to guide writers, it does not stifle creativity. Instead, it serves as a springboard for imaginative exploration and experimentation, allowing writers to shape their stories to fit their unique style, genre, or themes. It’s a technique that encourages writers to push the boundaries of their craft, taking risks and pursuing bold, innovative ideas within the framework it provides. Balancing structure and freedom, helps writers unleash their full creative potential and bring their most daring visions to life.


Fostering Emotional Connection

The story spine doesn’t just provide a blueprint for crafting engaging narratives—it also enables writers to forge deep emotional connections with their readers. By guiding writers through the emotional arcs of their stories, it helps to ensure that each tale resonates on a profound level, stirring the hearts and minds of those who experience it. As a writer, the story spine empowers you to create stories that transcend the page, touching the lives of your readers and leaving an indelible mark on their souls.


Unleashing the Power of the Story Spine in Your Writing

As you embark on your storytelling journey, the story spine can be an invaluable companion, guiding you through the labyrinth of narrative creation. However, to truly harness its full potential, you must be willing to adapt, experiment, and push the boundaries of your craft.


Embracing the Flexibility of the Story Spine

One of the most remarkable aspects of the story spine is its inherent flexibility. While it provides a solid foundation, the story spine encourages writers to adapt and modify its structure to suit their unique needs, genre, or style. Embrace this freedom and let your imagination soar, as you tailor its templates to fit the contours of your narrative landscape.


Crafting a Symphony of Emotion

The story spine provides a roadmap for your characters’ emotional journeys, enabling you to forge deep connections with your readers. To create an emotionally resonant story, seek to balance predictability and surprise, weaving together familiar themes with unexpected twists and turns that keep your readers on the edge of their seats, their hearts pounding with anticipation.


Subplots and Secondary Characters

A compelling story is a tapestry of interwoven threads, with each strand adding depth, complexity, and nuance to the overall narrative. To bring this richness to your story, consider incorporating subplots and secondary characters that complement and enrich the backbone of your story. These additional storylines can illuminate hidden corners of your narrative world, breathing life into the characters, themes, and settings that populate your tale.


Navigating the Path of Character-Driven Stories

This storytelling method is not only a powerful tool for plot-driven narratives—it can also be a beacon of inspiration for character-driven stories. In these tales, the protagonist’s internal journey takes center stage, with the story spine serving as a compass to guide their emotional growth and development. As you navigate the path of character-driven storytelling, let the story spine illuminate the way, leading your characters through transformative experiences that resonate deeply with your readers.


Weaving the Threads of Your Story Together

The story spine is a masterful storyteller’s loom, upon which you can weave the threads of your narrative into a tapestry of wonder and emotion. As you implement these strategies in your writing, remember to pay attention to the delicate balance between structure and creativity, allowing your instincts and intuition to guide you as you craft your story. With the story spine by your side, you can create unforgettable tales that enchant, inspire, and touch the hearts of your readers.


Common Pitfalls & How to Avoid Them

The story spine, while a powerful and versatile tool, is not without its challenges. As a writer, you may encounter obstacles and pitfalls on your journey to master this storytelling method. Fear not, for we have crafted a map to guide you through these treacherous waters, ensuring you emerge victorious and unscathed. Let us explore the common pitfalls of the story spine and the strategies you can employ to overcome them.


Escaping the Snares of Overreliance

While the story spine provides a reliable structure, it is crucial to avoid becoming ensnared in its confines, stifling your creativity and originality. To escape this trap, remember that this method is just a guide, not a rigid blueprint. Allow your imagination to roam free, exploring unexpected avenues and uncharted territories as you craft your tale.


Unearthing the Hidden Depths of Your Characters

A rich and engaging story is brought to life by its characters. Neglecting character development can leave your narrative feeling hollow and lifeless. To avoid this pitfall, delve into the hidden depths of your characters, exploring their fears, dreams, and motivations. By cultivating a deep understanding of your characters, you can bring them to life on the page, forging a powerful connection with your readers.


Igniting the Spark of a Powerful Inciting Incident

A strong inciting incident is the catalyst that propels your story forward, capturing your reader’s attention and setting the stage for the narrative journey ahead. Failing to create a compelling inciting incident can leave your story adrift, struggling to find its bearings. To triumph over this challenge, strive to ignite the spark of a powerful inciting incident that captivates your readers and launches your story into the realm of the extraordinary.


Embracing the Delicate Dance of Balance

Mastering the story spine requires a delicate dance between structure and freedom, creativity and coherence. To avoid stumbling, strive to maintain a careful balance between these elements, allowing your narrative to unfold organically while remaining grounded in its guiding principles. By embracing this dance, you can create a symphony of storytelling that resonates deeply with your readers and leaves a lasting impression on their hearts and minds.

Frequently Asked Questions

Dive into our FAQ section to explore the origins of the story spine structure and its versatility, as well as discover other popular story structures to enhance your storytelling abilities.


Who Created the Story Spine Structure?

The story spine structure was created by Kenn Adams, a playwright and improv actor, who initially developed the technique for improvisational theater. Since then, it has been adapted and widely used in various storytelling mediums, including literature and film.


Can the Story Spine Only Be Used for Writing Fictional Narratives?

While this technique is particularly well-suited for fictional narratives, its principles can also be applied to other forms of storytelling, such as personal essays, memoirs, and even business presentations. The structure provides a solid foundation that can be adapted to suit a variety of storytelling needs.


What Are Other Popular Story Structures?

While the story spine is a popular and powerful storytelling tool, it is not the only structure available to writers. Many other storytelling structures exist, each with their unique strengths and benefits. Some of the most popular ones include:

  1. The Three-Act Structure
  2. Freytag’s Pyramid
  3. The Hero’s Journey
  4. Dan Harmon’s Story Circle
  5. Fichtean Curve
  6. Save the Cat Beat Sheet
  7. Seven-Point Story Structure


Each of these story structures offers a different approach to crafting a narrative, providing writers with a variety of options to suit their unique style, genre, or theme. Exploring these structures can broaden your understanding of storytelling, helping you develop a versatile toolkit to draw from as you craft your tales.

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